Today I will be discussing the various types of Open Access (OA) research journal articles. This has become imperative given the growing demand and support it has garnered over the fifteen years of its emergence. Events in recent years have shown an increasing number of individual authors, reviewers, researchers, funding agencies (both governments, private, and non-governmental), institutions, universities, libraries, publishers, etc, embracing Open Access research article publication. The advent of several technological tools such Unpaywall, DOAJ, the infamous Sci-hub, various academic social networks like ResearchGate, Academia.edu etc have further increased the popularity of OA and brought about deeper scrutiny of the traditional toll access publication process. To worsen matters, the increasing cost of toll-access journal subscriptions, further propelled the adoption of OA as a viable alternative by several stakeholders. Furthermore, research has shown that, on the average, Open Access research journal articles receive about 18% more citations than toll access articles, indicating increased use of OA articles.
Research articles meant for Open Access publication are licensed under the Creative Commons. Open Access scholarly publication is of benefit to authors, readers and funders. It helps authors to expand the reach of an article so more people get to read it, it also helps readers to identify gaps in a particular research field so they can build on it, as well as helping funders expand the reach and impact of researches funded.
Basically, publications are said to be Open Access when it is made freely available online for all to access and use without restrictions. According to the Open Research Glossary, Open Access is â€œâ€‹ making peer-reviewed scholarly manuscripts freely available via the Internet, permitting any user to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full text of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any lawful purpose, without financial, legal or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited. May also refer to theses, books, book chapters, monographs, and other content
Types of Open Access Research Journals
Pre-print: when a prospective author of a research article submits his/her draft manuscript to a Journal publisher, such a manuscript is referred to as a Pre-print version. Pre-print manuscripts have not been subjected to a formal peer-review process. Researchers may have reservations about citing pre-print versions of research articles in their own work since it is yet to be peer-reviewed.
Post-print: in contrast to pre-print, post-print articles have passed through the formal process of peer review.
Version of Record (VOR): this refers to the final post-print version of a research manuscript that has been processed for publication by the journal publishers.
Hybrid Journals: refers to Journals that are majorly toll access but offer some articles as OA for a relatively higher fee. In essence, such journals contain both toll access and Open Access articles.
Accepted Author Manuscript: refers to the version of a research manuscript that has been officially accepted by the Journal publishers for publication.
E-print: refers to the electronic digital copy of a published journal article available online for a repository.
There are other types of Open Access research journals (although their use has been largely deprecated and not encouraged due to their ambiguity) such as:
Gold Open Access: whereby the publisher makes the research article freely available and accessible to everyone interested, immediately upon publication. Such Gold OA articles can either be published in hybrid Journals or Open Access only research journals; however free access and permissions to read a research article don’t make it a Gold OA. The author usually reserves the copyrights to the article. Commonly though, research articles are considered Gold OA by virtue of their inclusion in the DOAJ.
Green Open Access: here a version of the research article is made freely available and accessible in a repository. Here, the publisher exercises some influence on how the research article may be used e.g. the type of article and duration of the embargo period, before making the article openly accessible in the repository.
Bronze Open Access: refers to research articles without an explicit Open License, but made freely available for reading, on the publishers’ website.
Gratis OA: in which the research article is made openly available for reading, but has some copyright restrictions on its reuse, such as All Rights Reserved copyright.
Libre OA: in which the research article is made freely available (under an open license) and open for reuse.Follow/Contact EduTechTainMent: